RESEARCH ARTICLE


The Evolution of Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction



Alan Getgood*, Tim Spalding
University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Clifford Bridge Road, Walsgrave, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK


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© Getgood and Spalding; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Clifford Bridge Road, Walsgrave, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK; Tel: +447980803194; E-mail: agetgood@btinternet.com


Abstract

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has evolved significantly since the early 1900’s, back when an emphasis was placed on repair and not reconstruction. Over the past century, the technique has evolved from intra-articular non anatomic reconstruction, to extra articular reconstruction, back to intra articular (performed arthroscopically), to now, the advent of anatomic insertion site restoration. This review will aim to illustrate the changes that have occurred, describing the rational for this process, based upon anatomical, radiological, biomechanical and clinical studies, all of which have aimed to improve patient function following ACL injury.

Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, reconstruction, repair, surgical technique, evolution.