It was nearly a centenary ago that severe ankle sprain was recognized as an injury of the ankle ligament(s). With the recent technological advances and tools in imaging and surgical procedures, the management of ankle sprains - including subtalar injuries - has drastically improved. The repair or reconstruction of ankle ligaments is getting more anatomical and less invasive than previously. More specifically, ligamentous reconstruction with tendon graft has been the gold standard in the management of severely damaged ligament, however, it does not reproduce the original ultrastructure of the ankle ligaments. The anatomical ligament structure of a ligament comprises a ligament with enthesis at both ends and the structure should also exhibit proprioceptive function. To date, it remains impossible to reconstruct a functionally intact and anatomical ligament. Cooperation of the regenerative medicine and surgical technology in expected to improve reconstructions of the ankle ligament, however, we need more time to develop a technology in reproducing the ideal ligament complex.

Keywords: Ankle, Subtalar joint, Instability, Ligament, Repair, Reconstruction, mechanoreceptor, Arthroscopy.
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