Carbon Nanostructures in Bone Tissue Engineering

Brian Lee Perkins1, *, Naghmeh Naderi2, 3
1 Health Informatics Group, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, SA2 8PP, United Kingdom
2 Reconstructive Surgery & Regenerative Medicine Group, Institute of Life Science (ILS), Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, SA2 8PP, United Kingdom
3 Welsh Centre for Burns & Plastic Surgery, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Swansea, United Kingdom

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Creative Commons License
© Perkins and Naderi; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Health Informatics Group, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, SA2 8PP, United Kingdom; Tel: +441792602865; E-mail:



Recent advances in developing biocompatible materials for treating bone loss or defects have dramatically changed clinicians’ reconstructive armory. Current clinically available reconstructive options have certain advantages, but also several drawbacks that prevent them from gaining universal acceptance. A wide range of synthetic and natural biomaterials is being used to develop tissue-engineered bone. Many of these materials are currently in the clinical trial stage.


A selective literature review was performed for carbon nanostructure composites in bone tissue engineering.


Incorporation of carbon nanostructures significantly improves the mechanical properties of various biomaterials to mimic that of natural bone. Recently, carbon-modified biomaterials for bone tissue engineering have been extensively investigated to potentially revolutionize biomaterials for bone regeneration.


This review summarizes the chemical and biophysical properties of carbon nanostructures and discusses their functionality in bone tissue regeneration.

Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, Carbon nanostructures, Composites, Bone reconstruction.