A Qualitative Description of Chronic Neck Pain has Implications for Outcome Assessment and Classification

The Open Orthopaedics Journal 30 December 2016 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874325001610010746



Neck pain is common, but few studies have used qualitative methods to describe it.


To describe the quality, distribution and behavior of neck pain.


Sixteen people (15 females; mean age = 33 years (range = 20-69)) with neck pain >3 months were interviewed using a semi-structured guide. Interview data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Descriptive content analysis was performed by two authors. Participants then completed an electronic descriptive pain tool, placing icons (word and icon descriptors to describe quality) on anatomic diagrams to identify location of pain, and intensity ratings at each location. This data was triangulated with interviews.


Aching pain and stiffness in the posterior neck and shoulder region were the most common pain complaints. All patients reported more than one pain quality. Associated headache was common (11/16 people); but varied in location and pain quality; 13/16 reported upper extremity symptoms. Neuropathic characteristics (burning) or sensory disturbance (numbness/tingling) occurred in some patients, but were less common. Activities that involved lifting/carrying and psychological stress were factors reported as exacerbating pain. Physical activity was valued as essential to function, but also instigated exacerbations. Concordance between the structured pain tool and interviews enhanced trustworthiness of our results. Integrating qualitative findings with a previous classification system derived a 7-axis neck pain classification: source/context, sample subgroup, distribution, duration, episode pattern, pain/symptom severity, disability/participation restriction.


Qualitative assessment and classification should consider the multiple dimensions of neck pain.

Keywords: Classification, Neck pain, Qualitative, Structured pain tool, Thematic analysis, Whiplash.
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