Multiplanar Deformities Correction Using Taylor Spatial Frame in Skeletally Immature Patients

Lior Koren2, Yaniv Keren2, *, Mark Eidelman1
1 Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel
2 Orthopedic Surgery Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel

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Creative Commons License
© Koren et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Orthopedic Division Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; E-mail:



Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is a modern circular external fixator that, using a virtual hinge, is able to correct six axis deformities simultaneously. Despite the growing popularity of this method, few reports exist about its use in children and adolescents. To evaluate the effectiveness of TSF in correcting multiplanar deformities in patients with open physis, we reviewed the results of treatment in children who had at least two planes deformities of lower limbs.


Over a period of 8 years, we treated 51 patients, 40 boys, 11 girls, with a mean age of 12.4 years (range, 2-16 years). All patients had open physis at the time of the TSF application. All patients had at least two deformities (angular and/or rotational). Fifty-five osteotomies (11 femoral, 44 tibial) were performed. Patients were divided into four groups: 13 with post-traumatic malunions, 18 with tibia vara, six with rickets, and 14 with miscellaneous deformities. Correction goal was determined as correction of deformities to population-average parameters of the lower limbs in frontal and sagittal views and normal mechanical axis deviation.


Correction goal was achieved in all except one patient; four patients had recurrence of deformities post-operatively and were re-operated. Most common complications were pin tract infection (20 patients), delayed union (2), regenerate translation (1), post-removal femoral fractures (2), knee subluxation (1), nonunion (1), and one patient developed chronic osteomyelitis secondary to deep pin tract infection.


TSF allowed accurate correction of complex limb deformities in children and adolescents with relatively few serious complications.

Level of Evidence:

Level IV. Case series.

Keywords: Adolescents, circular fixator, deformity, multiplanar, TSF, taylor.