Proximal Humeral Fractures: A Review of Current Concepts

James C. Widnall1, Sujay K. Dheerendra1, Joby Jacob George Malal*, 2, Mohammed Waseem2
1 Aintree University Hospitals NHS Trust, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool, L9 7AL, UK
2 Macclesfield District General Hospital, Victoria Road, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 3BL, UK

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© Widnall et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Orthopaedics, Macclesfield District General Hospital, Victoria Road, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK10 3BL, UK; Tel: +44 1625 661315; Fax: +44 1625 425873; E-mail:


The majority of proximal humerus fractures are sustained via low energy falls in the elderly population. These patients can attain an acceptable level of function via non-operative treatment. There is yet to be a clear consensus on treatment options suitable for those that fall outside of this majority group. Open reduction internal fixation, intra medullary nailing and arthroplasty surgery have all been used to varying effects. Good results are achievable if complications such as mal-union, non-union and avascular necrosis can be avoided. This review aims to clarify the options available to the current day trauma surgeon.

Keywords: Fractures, internal fixation, osteosynthesis, proximal humerus.