RESEARCH ARTICLE


The Frozen Shoulder: Myths and Realities



Mathias Thomas Nagy*, Robert J. MacFarlane, Yousaf Khan , Mohammad Waseem
Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Macclesfield District General Hospital, Victoria Road, Macclesfield, SK10 3BL, UK


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Creative Commons License
© Nagy et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/) which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Macclesfield District General Hospital, Victoria Road, Macclesfield, SK10 3BL, UK; Tel: 01625 661307; Fax: 01625 661436; E-mail: dr.nagy@gmx.net


Abstract

Frozen shoulder is a common, disabling but self-limiting condition, which typically presents in three stages and ends in resolution. Frozen shoulder is classified as primary (idiopathic) or secondary cases. The aetiology for primary frozen shoulder remains unknown. It is frequently associated with other systemic conditions, most commonly diabetes mellitus, or following periods of immobilisation e.g. stroke disease. Frozen shoulder is usually diagnosed clinically requiring little investigation. Management is controversial and depends on the phase of the condition. Non-operative treatment options for frozen shoulder include analgesia, physiotherapy, oral or intra-articular corticosteroids, and intra-articular distension injections. Operative options include manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic release and are generally reserved for refractory cases.

Keywords: Frozen shoulder, adhesive capsulitis, arthroscopic release.