The Frozen Shoulder: Myths and Realities
Mathias Thomas Nagy*, Robert J. MacFarlane, Yousaf Khan , Mohammad Waseem
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2013
Issue: Suppl 3
First Page: 352
Last Page: 355
Publisher ID: TOORTHJ-7-352
Article History:Received Date: 13/10/2012
Revision Received Date: 1/12/2012
Acceptance Date: 15/12/2012
Electronic publication date: 6 /9/2013
Collection year: 2013
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/) which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Frozen shoulder is a common, disabling but self-limiting condition, which typically presents in three stages and ends in resolution. Frozen shoulder is classified as primary (idiopathic) or secondary cases. The aetiology for primary frozen shoulder remains unknown. It is frequently associated with other systemic conditions, most commonly diabetes mellitus, or following periods of immobilisation e.g. stroke disease. Frozen shoulder is usually diagnosed clinically requiring little investigation. Management is controversial and depends on the phase of the condition. Non-operative treatment options for frozen shoulder include analgesia, physiotherapy, oral or intra-articular corticosteroids, and intra-articular distension injections. Operative options include manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic release and are generally reserved for refractory cases.