RESEARCH ARTICLE


A History of Shoulder Surgery



S Iqbal*, U Jacobs, A Akhtar, R.J Macfarlane, M Waseem
Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Stott Lane, Salford, M6 8HD, UK


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Creative Commons License
© Iqbal et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/) which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Stott Lane, Salford, M6 8HD, UK; Tel: 0044 (0) 787 216 4006; E-mail: drshoaibiqbal@gmail.com


Abstract

Shoulder surgery has emerged from being a marginalised sub-speciality to being an area of much research and advancement within the last seventy years. This has been despite the complexity of the joint, and success majorly rests on parallel development of biomedical technology. This article looks at the past and present of shoulder surgery and discusses future directions in the speciality.

Keywords: Orthopaedic surgery, shoulder surgery, shoulder instability, proximal humeral fractures, rotator cuff, arthroplasty, arthroscopy, biological therapy, stem cell therapy.