Correlation of Pain Scores, Analgesic Use, and Beck Anxiety Inventory Scores During Hospitalization in Lower Extremity Amputees

Cathy D Trame*, 1, Erin Greene2, Gail Moddeman3, Branyan A Booth4, Emmanuel K Konstantakos4, Stephen Parada5, Karl Siebuhr4, Richard T Laughlin4
1 Miami Valley Hospital, Pain Center, 30 East Apple Street, Suite 5250, Dayton, Ohio 45409, USA
2 Good Samaritan Hospital, 3084 Village Court, Beavercreek, Ohio 45432, USA
3 Miami Valley College of Nursing and Health, 3640 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, Ohio 45435, USA
4 Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine, Miami Valley Hospital, 30 East Apple Street, Suite 2200, Dayton, Ohio 45409, USA
5 Madigan Army Medical Center, 9040A Fitzsimmons Drive, Tacoma, Washington 98431, USA

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© Trame et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Miami Valley Hospital, Pain Center, 30 East Apple Street, Suite 5250, Dayton, Ohio 45409, USA; Tel: 937-208-5127; E-mail:


Post amputation pain can be debilitating for patients and families. Chronic pain is a common phenomenon after lower extremity amputation, occurring in up to 80% of this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to correlate post amputation pain scores to opioid analgesic consumption and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores. Twenty-three patients with lower extremity amputation at an 827-bed acute care inner-city hospital were surveyed pre-operatively and post-operatively to determine if there was a significant correlation between anxiety and pain. A numeric scale was utilized by patients to rate their pain level, while the BAI was utilized to measure their anxiety levels.

A significant correlation was found between the pre-operative BAI levels and the BAI levels identified at time of discharge. Patients were found to have a higher than normal level of anxiety pre-operatively. No significant correlations were found between anxiety and pain.

Keywords: Amputation, Pain, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety, Phantom Limb.